Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of
the larger Punjab region, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu
and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south
and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab
to the west.
Punjabi is the most widely spoken
and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis,
with Punjabi Sikhs (57.7%) forming the demographic majority, followed by Hindus
(38.5%). The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the
capital of the neighboring state of Haryana. The five rivers from which the
region took its name were Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum; Sutlej, Ravi
and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab.